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Scientists Find ‘Circuit Boards’ Inside Living Cells, Study Says

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According to a study conducted by researchers at the University of Edinburgh, the cells in a human body function much like a circuit board or computer chip, albeit, much more complex. The study was published in Nature Communications, and funded by the British Heart Foundation.

Similar to microchips and circuit boards, human cells transmit information from one node to another.

Science Daily described the technical research in depth, saying that, “It is the movement of charged molecules across these tiny distances that transmit information, just as in a computer microprocessor, the researchers say. These localized signals are responsible for orchestrating the cell’s activities, such as instructing muscle cells to relax or contract. When these signals reach the genetic material at the heart of the cell, called the nucleus, they instruct minute changes in structure that release specific genes so that they can be expressed.”

Cell

Photo Credit: Shutterstock

Experts say that this is a feat of “quantum biology” a new field in science where researchers combine quantum mechanics and theoretical chemistry to solve biological problems.

Professor Mark Evans, of the University of Edinburgh’s Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, said that the networks that exist in our bodies are nearly identical to computer networks.

“We found that cell function is coordinated by a network of nanotubes, similar to the carbon nanotubes you find in a computer microprocessor. The most striking thing is that this circuit is highly flexible, as this cell-wide web can rapidly reconfigure to deliver different outputs in a manner determined by the information received by and relayed from the nucleus. This is something no human-made microprocessors or circuit boards are yet capable of achieving,” Evans said.

 

 

While the researchers did not specifically mention simulation theory in their study, the findings do seem to lend credibility to the idea that reality is actually just a complex computer simulation.

Many prominent thinkers have actually gone on the record to state that they think humans are living in a computer simulation that was designed by more technologically advances humans. In fact, billionaire Tesla CEO Elon Musk believes in this theory so strongly that he says there is a “one in billions chance” that we are NOT living in a simulation.

“There’s a one in billions chance [we’re in] base reality. I think it’s one in billions. We should hope that’s true because otherwise if civilization stops advancing, that could be due to some calamitous event that erases civilization, so maybe we should be hopeful this is a simulation. Otherwise, we will create simulations that are indistinguishable from reality or civilization will cease to exist. Those are the two options,” Musk said.

Circuits

The binary code and the motherboard. Concept of information technology. Photo Credit: IEEE Spectrum

Musk says that some of the best evidence for this theory is how much virtual reality and video game technology has advanced in such a short amount of time.

“The strongest argument for us being in a simulation, probably being in a simulation is the following: 40 years ago, we had pong, two rectangles and a dot. That is what games were. Now 40 years later we have photorealistic 3D simulations with millions of people playing simultaneously and it’s getting better every year. And soon we’ll have virtual reality, augmented reality, if you assume any rate of improvement at all, the games will become indistinguishable from reality,” Musk said.

The theory was first formally introduced by British philosopher Nicholas Bostrom in 2003, although it is a concept that has been discussed since the early days of virtual reality. Bostrom raises some compelling points in his theory. One of the ideas explored by Bostrom is the idea that something seems to destroy all civilizations before they are able to advance to the point where they able to simulate consciousness through technology.

There is also a growing number of people in the scientific community who believe that the universe is some type of hologram, which seems to fit in with this theory nicely. The holographic universe theory is a subset of string theory first proposed by Gerard ‘t Hooft and then later advanced by Leonard Susskind.

Many of the people who believe in simulation theory also believe that it would probably be impossible to prove that we were in a virtual reality system, considering that any evidence that we find could have also been simulated.

Susan Claire graduated with a degree in microbiology from Ohio State University. Now she lives on the road, in a constant state of travel between research projects and studies. In her free time, she likes to write articles about the most cutting edge inventions, and most recent developments in science.

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Nasa says an asteroid is flying towards Earth in one of the closest encounters ever recorded

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According to NASA, an asteroid is speeding towards our planet and is said to be one of the closest passes it will make.

It is expected to fly past us without incident, coming closer to Earth than many celestial bodies’ orbits.

The asteroid will reach its closest point at 12:27am UK time on Friday or 7:27pm Eastern time on Thursday.

The object’s size is estimated to be approximately 3.5 meters by 8.5 meters.

On the 21st of January, an amateur astronomer, Gennadiy Borisov, discovered comet 2l/Borisov, a peculiar item believed to have descended from deeper space.

After other astronomers verified this object’s presence within a few days and made numerous observations, scientists were able to identify its path through the cosmos.

NASA’s Scout system, which identifies potential collision risks, analyzed the asteroid after it was detected and predicted it would miss us, just barely.

“Despite the limited observations, Scout was able to make an accurate forecast,” the agency said.

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Scientists Capture Two Murder Hornet Queens Alive And Destroy First Known Nest

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Earlier this week, scientists destroyed the first “murder hornet” nest in the US, but two queens managed to escape. “Murder hornets” are an invasive species to the United States that has been making headlines this year. The real name for this insect is the “Asian giant hornet” but it has earned the nickname “murder hornet” because they are actually capable of killing a human being, and they are also a major threat to honeybee populations, which are already dangerously low.

On Wednesday, Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) officials were able to cut down and remove the entire tree that once held the first known murder hornet nest, and this is where they found the two queens. Incredibly the scientists managed to capture the queens in vials, according to CBS News.

They also captured 13 other live hornets for observation and research.

WSDA

In a statement on Friday, WSDA announced the finding, describing the process that scientists went through to take apart the tree.

Over the next several days, WSDA entomologists will continue to analyze the nest and its contents. They will record data such as the number and caste of adult specimens, the number and size of the nest cells, overall nest size, weight and length of collected specimens, and more. All of the data will be made publicly available when it is complete and will be posted to the WSDA’s Asian giant hornet webpage at agr.wa.gov/hornets.

WSDA

Murder Hornets were discovered in the US after an entire hive of honey bees was destroyed back in November and the bees were found decapitated. A short time after, two Asian giant hornets were found just a few miles north near Blaine, near the U.S.-Canadian border. After that incident, scientists and residents were on the lookout for the species.

Anyone who finds a murder hornet nest is urged to contact their local health authorities instead of attempting to damage the nest themselves. In previous cases, people have attempted to destroy murder hornet nests, only to find out that they were actually regular bee nests.

Doug Yanega, senior museum scientist for the Department of Entomology at UC Riverside told the LA Times that these insects aren’t as threatening as they appear to be, and reminded reporters that the “murder hornets” have not created an armageddon in Asia yet, and they have been there hundreds of years, but they do represent a danger to other insects as an invasive species.

The Asian giant hornet, Vespa mandarinia, is the world’s largest hornet species. They have large yellow-orange heads, prominent eyes and are between 1.5 to 2 inches long. The Asian giant hornet is often confused with the yellow-legged hornet (Vespa velutina), also known as the Asian hornet, an invasive species of major concern across Europe, including the UK. In some Japanese mountain villages, the nests are excavated and the larvae are considered a delicacy when fried.

Washington residents are still asked to report Asian giant hornet sightings (with a photo if possible) online, via email at [email protected], or by calling 1-800-443-6684.

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Scientists Find Evidence Of Water On The Moon

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Scientists with NASA have recently announced that they have found significant evidence showing that water exists on the moon. Their research has also indicated that this water could be possible for humans to tap into, if a base of some sort were to be built on the moon.

For most of recent history, scientists believed that the moon was likely dry because it does not have an atmosphere to insulate it from the sun’s rays. However, many researcher’s attitudes on the subject changed in the 1990s when a spacecraft found evidence of ice in the craters at the moon’s poles. Then in 2009, imaging spectrometers onboard India’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft recorded signatures consistent with water in light reflecting off the moon’s surface, according to the Guardian.

While this gave scientists hope that there was water on the moon, it was impossible for them to tell if it was water for sure, because the readings could have actually been hydroxyl molecules, and not actual H2O.

However, a team at Nasa’s ASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, led by Casey Honniball has been able to prove that the signature is in fact H2O. They confirmed this finding by measuring the wavelengths of sunlight reflecting off the moon’s surface. The data was collected by the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (Sofia), a modified Boeing 747 carrying a 2.7-meter reflecting telescope.

However, researchers still have many questions about the water sources on the moon. They do not know how abundant water is there, which is essential to find out if they hope to use it. Scientists hope that they will learn more through Nasa’s Artemis mission, which will be sending astronauts to the moon by 2024. British scientists are also developing a robotic drill to take samples of lunar soil from depths of up to a meter, as part of a Russian mission scheduled for 2025.

Paul Hayne, of the University of Colorado in Boulder, is one of many researchers trying to learn more about the moon.

“With billions of potential water reservoirs scattered over the polar regions, the focus should be shifted away from the handful of well-known large craters and towards the multitude of potential landing sites our study reveals,” Prof Hayne said.

Earlier in October, eight countries including the UK signed the Artemis Accords, which is a set of international agreements drawn up by the US government that lays out a plan for future exploration of the moon and exploitation of its resources. Russia and China have still not signed onto the agreement, and they may not be able to depending on sanctions and trade agreements.

Christopher Newman, professor of space law and policy at Northumbria University, in Newcastle, says that the agreement hopes to ensure that activities between earth nations on the moon will be peaceful.

“The accords pull together the existing norms of behaviour that we’ve established, such as recognition that exploration of the moon should be for peaceful purposes, that there should be transparency in operations, and data sharing, and so on,” Newman said.

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